Based on limited case reports, according to the CDC, adverse infant outcomes (e.g., preterm birth) have been reported among infants born to mothers positive for COVID-19 during pregnancy.

However, it is not clear that these outcomes were related to maternal infection, and at this time the risk of adverse infant outcomes is not known. Given the limited data available related to COVID-19 during pregnancy, knowledge of adverse outcomes from other respiratory viral infections may provide some information. For example, other respiratory viral infections during pregnancy, such as influenza, have been associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, including low birth weight and preterm birth. Additionally, having a cold or influenza with a high fever early in pregnancy may increase the risk of certain birth defects.

Infants born preterm and/or small for gestational age have been reported among infants born to mothers with other coronavirus infections, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, during pregnancy.

Is there a risk that COVID-19 in pregnant women or neonates could have longterm effects on infant health and development that may require clinical support beyond infancy?

According to CDC officials, at this time, there is no information on long-term health effects on infants either with COVID-19, or those exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in utero. In general, prematurity and low birth weight are associated with adverse long-term health effects.

Is maternal illness with COVID-19 during lactation associated with potential risk to a breastfeeding infant?

CDC officials explain that human-to-human transmission by close contact with a person with confirmed COVID-19 has been reported and is thought to occur mainly via respiratory droplets produced when a person with infection coughs or sneezes. In limited case series reported to date, no evidence of virus has been found in the breast milk of women with COVID-19. No information is available on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2* through breast milk (i.e., infectious virus in the breast milk).
In limited reports of lactating women infected with SARS-CoV,* virus has not been detected in breast milk; however, antibodies against SARS-CoV were detected in at least one sample.

* SARS-CoV caused an outbreak in 2002-2003. The virus causing the current outbreak called SARS-CoV-2. As the name indicates, the viruses are related, however, they are not the same.